Yu the Great and the mythical dance called the Pace of Yu

It is our intuitive instincts that outweigh everything else that carries the day. Taoist altered states of consciousness and the mythical dance called the Pace of Yu. 

What we remember as instincts that outweigh strategy alone and by living in the moment will we get the results we seek. 

Yubu, translated as Pace(s) of Yu or Step(s) of Yu, is the basic mystic dance step of religious Taoism. This ancient walking or dancing technique typically involves dragging one foot after another and is explained in reference to the legendary Yu the Great, who became lame on one side of his body from exerting himself while establishing order in the world after the Great Flood.

Taoist religions, especially during the Six Dynasties period (220–589), incorporated Yubu into rituals, such as the Bugang  步罡, or pace the Big Dipper, in which a Taoist priest would symbolically walk the nine stars of the Beidou 北斗 i.e., “Big Dipper” to acquire that constellation’s supernatural energy.

When religious Daoism began during the Six Dynasties period (220–589 CE), the expression bugang tadou 步罡踏斗 “pacing the guideline and treading on (the stars of) the Dipper” became popular.

The term Yubu 禹步, defined as “limp; walk lame”. Yu  was the legendary founder of the Xia dynasty (c. 2070 BCE-c. 1600 BCE) and worked so long and hard fighting the mythical Great Flood that he became partially paralyzed. Yu the Great is the subject of many mythological stories. Anne Birrell says,

“The myth of Yü and the flood is the greatest in the Chinese tradition. This is not just because the narratives tell how he managed to control the flood, but also because numerous myths, legends, and folk tales became attached to his name. In every case, Yü is depicted as a hero, selflessly working on behalf of humankind, and succeeding in his task.”[5] 

According to early Chinese mythological and historical texts, a Great Flood inundated China during the reign of Emperor Yao (2356 – 2255 BCE). Yao appointed Yu’s father Gun to control the flooding, and he spent nine years constructing dikes and dams, which collapsed and killed many people.

After reigning for one century, Yao abdicated the throne to Shun, the last of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, who fired or killed (according to version) Gun and appointed Yu to replace his father.

Yu the Great devised a successful flood control system through undamming rivers, dredging riverbeds, and constructing irrigation canals. In fighting the floods for thirteen years, Yu sacrificed his body, resulting in thick calluses on his hands and feet, and partial paralysis.

Shun abdicated to Yu, who founded the Xia dynasty. The third century BC Taoist classic Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) quotes philosophical rival Mozi, founder of Mohism, to tell the myth of Yu controlling the flood. 

Master Mo declared,   

“Long ago, when Yü was trying to stem throne the flood waters, he cut channels from the Yangtze and the Yellow rivers and opened communications with the four uncivilized tribes and the nine regions. There were three hundred famous rivers, three thousand branch rivers, and countless smaller ones. Yü personally handled the basket and the shovel, interconnecting the rivers of all under heaven, till there was not down on his calves and no hair on his shins. He was bathed by the pouring rains and combed by the gusting winds as he laid out the myriad states. Yü was a great sage, and he wearied his physical form on behalf of all under heaven like this.”[6] 

Chinese origin myths have stories about two primordial sage-rulers being divinely inspired by patterns on turtle shells.

Fu Xi devised the bagua,”eight trigrams” of the Yijing (I Ching) from seeing the Hotu, the “Yellow River Map” on a turtle (or a dragon horse), and Yu devised the basic magic Fu Xi devised the bagua,”eight trigrams” of the Yijing (I Ching) from seeing the Hotu, the “Yellow River Map” on a turtle (or a dragon horse)square from seeing the Luoshu , the “Luo River writing” on a giant turtle shell.[7] “The Great Treatise” commentary to the I Ching became an early reference to the Luoshu

Heaven creates divine things; the holy sage takes them as models. Heaven and earth change and transform; the holy sage imitates them. In the heavens hang images that reveal good fortune and misfortune; the holy sage reproduces these. The Yellow River brought forth a map and the Lo River brought forth a writing; the holy men took these as models.[8] 

The Yijing (I Ching) sub-commentary explains,

“The water of the Ho sent forth a dragon horse; on its back there was curly hair, like a map of starry dots. The water of the Lo sent forth a divine tortoise; on its back there were riven veins, like writing of character pictures.”[9] 

The Luoshu is a 3×3 grid of dots representing the numbers 1-9, with the sum in each of the rows, columns, and diagonals equal to 15 (which is the number of days in each of the twenty-four solar terms in the traditional Chinese calendar). The Luoshu, also known as the “Nine Halls Diagram”, is central to Chinese fortune telling and fengshui. Yu used the Luoshu to divide ancient China into nine provinces; Michael Saso says the “Steps of Yu” dance is thought to ritually imitate Yu’s lamely walking throughout the Nine Provinces, stopping the floods, and restoring the order and blessing of nature.[10]                                                                                             Han dynasty depiction of Yu from the Wu Laing shrine. (Family shrine of the Wu clan of the Eastern Han dynasty.)

In Chinese mythology Yu is known first as the one who regulated the waters after the great flood, a fact he accomplished by walking through the world. His steps provide the exemplary model for the ritual form of Yubu. The flood may be equated with primordial chaos or, in a more synchronic mode of thought, the chaos underlying the existing state of order. And the cosmic order established by Yu may be identified with the societal order instituted by the emperor in accordance with the patterns of the universe.[11] 

Thus, one explanation for the Yubu is as a ritual reenactment in imitation of Yu’s gait as the lamed flood-hero. An alternative origin myth for the Yu Pace is that Yu himself invented it, inspired by the movements of a divine bird; and, that when Yu assembled the gods together, he used this dance.[12] 

Donald Harper says,

“Forms of magic related to Yu 禹, the flood hero and legendary founder of Xia, indicate his importance in Warring States magico-religious and occult traditions. Yu’s legendary circumambulation and pacification of a world in chaos appear to have made Yu the archetypal pacifier of the spirit world that continued to exist alongside mankind.”[13] 

Formerly, when the Longmen Mountains were not yet opened and the Lüliang Mountains were not yet tunneled through, the Huang River emerged from high in the Mengmen Mountains. It overflowed until it backed up, until there were no hills or mounds left unsubmerged, until even tall hillocks were destroyed by the flood. Yu thereupon dredged the Huang and Jiang rivers, and for ten years did not glance at his home. He worked so hard that his hands had no nails and lower legs had no hair.  

He contracted a partial-paralysis sickness, such that when he walked one foot could not step past the other, which people (thereafter) called the “Pac e of Yu”. This became one of the most famous stories in all Chinese mythology and notes the “‘Pace of Yu’ would go on to have a prominent place in early medicine and later Taoist ritual. This descriptive term is Chinese pianku  “paralyzed on one side, called hemiplegia”. 

In the past, Yu controlled the waters flooding the land, and now shamans dance the many Steps of Yu. Bian Qiao was a man of Lu, and now many healers and called men of Lu. Those who want to sell what is fake inevitably borrow from the genuine. Since the original reads “shaman’s steps”, an alternate translation is: “Yu regulated the waters and the earth, and the steps of shamans in many cases are those of Yu”. The French sinologist Marcel Granet hypothesized that Yubu dancing, enabled Taoist priests to achieve a state of trance and become the instrument of a spirit, derived from ancient Wu (shaman) techniques of ecstasy, known as the “spirit jumping” performing a shaman’s trance-dance.[17] 

Ge Hong‘s (320 BC) Taoist classic Baopuzi contains some of the earliest and most detailed descriptions of the Paces of Yu, in which “each pace comprises three steps, and the movement thus appears like the waddle of a three-legged creature”.[18] 

The three paces of Yubu were associated with the performer’s movement through the three levels of the cosmos, “the Santai Three Steps: stars within Ursa Major” in Chinese astronomy, and the Three Steps of Vishnu across earth, air, and heaven in the Rigveda. 

The fact that already in the early Han dynasty, the steps seem to have related to the three pairs of stars that are situated under the Northern Dipper and referred to as the Three Steps (santai 三台), or the Celestial Staircase (tianjie 天階), would seem to support this. It would appear, in other words, that even in this early period the Paces of Yu constituted a close parallel to the three Strides Viṣṇu in early Vedic mythology, which are thought to have taken the god through the three levels of the cosmos (thereby establishing the universe), and which indeed, just like the Paces of Yu in Taoist ritual, are known to have been imitated by Vedic priests as they approached the altar—and in the same form as the Paces of Yu, that is, dragging one foot after the other.[19] 

 The Big Dipper had crucial importance in Han cosmology and was seen as the instrument of the emperor of heaven, Taiyi 太一, who resides in the bright, reddish star Kochab (Beta Ursae Minoris) near the pole of heaven. In the so-called “apocryphal texts” or weishu 緯書 “glosses on the classics that allege esoteric meanings”, the Big Dipper [20] or Shendou 神斗 “Divine Dipper” is described as, “the throat and tongue of heaven”, which “contains the primordial breath and dispenses it by means of the Dipper”. 

Whenever excrescences are encountered, an initiating and an exorcising amulet are placed over them, then they can no longer conceal or transform themselves. Then patiently await the lucky day on which you will offer a sacrifice of wine and dried meat, and then pluck them with a prayer on your lips, always approaching from the east using Yü’s Pace and with your vital breaths well retained.[21] 

Yü’ s Pace: Advance left foot, then pass it with the right. Bring the left up to the right foot. Advance on the right foot, then pass it with the left. Bring the right up to the left foot. Advance left foot, then pass it with the right. Bring the left up to the right foot. In this way three paces are made, a total of 21 linear feet, and nine footprints will be made. (11)[22] 

 The “Into Mountains: Over Streams” chapter describes Yubu as an element in the Daoist astrological celestial stem-based “magic invisibility” system of Qimen Dunjia “Irregular Gate, Hidden Stem”. The Dunjia 遁甲 “Hidden Stem” calculates the position within the space-time structure of the liuding 六丁(“six ding“) “spirits that define the place of the Qimen 奇門 “Irregular Gate”. Andersen says,[23] 

This gate represents a “crack in the universe” so to speak, which must be approached through performing the Paces of Yu, and through which the adept may enter the emptiness of the otherworld and thereby achieve invisibility to evil spirits and dangerous influences. 

“When entering a famous mountain in search of the divine process leading to genie hood, choose one of the six kuei [六癸] days and hours, also known as Heaven-public Days, and you will be sure to become a genie.” Again, “On the way to the mountains or forests you must take some superior ch’ing-lung [青龍] grass in your left hand, break it and place half under feng-hsing [逢星]. Pass through the ming-t’ang [明堂] and enter yin-chung [陰中]. Walking with Yü’s Pace, pray three times as follows: ‘May Generals No-kao and T’ai-yin [諾皋大陰] open the way solely for me, their great-grandson, so-and-so by name. Let it not be opened for others. If anyone sees me, he is to be considered a bundle of grass; those that do not see me, non-men.’ Then break the grass that you are holding and place it on the ground. With the left hand take some earth and apply it to the first man in your group. Let the right hand take some grass with which to cover itself, and let the left hand extend forward. Walk with Yü’s Pace, and on attaining the Six-Kuei site, hold your breath and stay where you are. Neither men nor ghosts will be able to see you.” The Six Chia [六甲] constitute the ch’ing-lung; the Six I [六乙], the feng-hsing; the Six Ping [六丙], the ming-t’ang; and the Six Ting [六丁], the yin-chung. 

“As you proceed with the prescribed Yü’s Pace you will keep forming hexagram No. 63. Initial one foot forward, Initial two side by side, Prints not enough. Nine prints are the count, successively adequate. One pace (or three prints) equals seven feet; total, twenty-one feet; and on looking back you will see nine prints.” 

Method for walking Yu’s Pace. Stand straight. Advance the right foot while the left remains behind. Then advance in tum the left foot and the right foot, so that they are both side by side. This constitutes pace No. 1. Advance the right foot, then the left, then bring the right side by side with the left. This constitutes pace No. 2. Advance the left foot, then the right, then bring the left side by side with the right. This constitutes pace No. 3, with which a Yü’s Pace is completed. It should be known by all who are practicing the various recipes in our world; it is not enough to know only the recipes. (17) [24] 

This Yijing Hexagram 63Jiji 既濟 “Already Fording” is composed of the trigrams li 離 (☲) Fire and kan 坎 (☵) Water. 

Da Dai Liji

The (c. 2nd century CE) Da Dai Liji 大戴禮記 version of the Yu legend uses a synonym of bu “step; pace; walk”: ü 履 “step/tread on; shoes; follow” (also Yijing Hexagram 10 “Treading”). 

He was the grandson of Gaoyang 高陽 and the son of Gun 鯀. His name was Wenming 文命. He was generous and capable of helping; his virtue was unfailing. Attractive in his humanity and reliable in speech, his voice created the standards of sound and his body those of measure. He was praised as a superior person. Indefatigable and reverent he laid down the basic principles (gang 綱 and ji 紀). He inspected the nine provinces and opened the nine roads. He dammed the nine marshes and measured the nine mountains. He was the host of the gods, the father and mother of the people. To his left was the level and plumb line, to his right the compass and square. He set the four seasons in motion (“walked the four seasons”), lü sishi 履四時) and took possession of the four seas. He pacified the nine provinces and carried heavens on his head. He made his ears and eyes perceptive and regulated the world. He elevated Gao Yao 臯陶 and Yi 益 to his service. He made use of shield and spear to punish the insubordinate and reckless. Within the four seas, wherever boat or cart could reach, all submitted and gave allegiance to him. (62)[25] 

This context similarly says Yu’s grandfather Gaoyang or Zhuanxu, “walked [the patterns of] time in order to resemble (i.e., be in accordance with) heaven 履時以象天.” 

In the ideology of the Da Dai Liji, which agrees with other ritual classics of the period such as the Liji, Paul Andersen explains,[26] 

“They walk through the world done by Yu, as well as by other model emperors, is symbolic of the orderly movement of time. It is at the same time a transfer of the patterns of heaven — the movements of the celestial bodies and various divine forces — to earth, as expressed in one of the standard phrases about the mythical emperors, “He carried heaven on his head and walked the earth”, daitian lüdi 戴天履地.

Cantong qi

The (c. 2nd century) Cantong qi neidan “internal alchemy” classic, which is attributed to Wei Boyang, gives the earliest recorded criticism of yubu or bugang. 

The Cantong qi section on “Incorrect practices”[27] warns against improper or unproductive Taoist techniques, including performing budouxiu “pace the Dipper asterism” and liujia: “treading the Dipper and pacing the asterisms, using the six jia as markers of time” (履行步斗宿 六甲以日辰). 

Excavated texts

The discovery of medical and divinatory books in the late Warring States period tomb libraries has confirmed the (c. 320 CE) Baopuzi description of Yubu as a series of three steps. Recent archaeology brought to light manuscripts, written on bamboo and silk, documenting early Yubu practices: the (c. 217 BCE) Rishu and (c. 168 BCE) Wushi’er Bingfang. A third text, the (c. 300 BCE) Chu Silk Manuscript, describes the Great Flood survivors (but not Yu) bu “stepping” to calculate time. The Chinese term zhubo 竹帛 (lit. “bamboo silk”) means “bamboo (slips) and silk (for writing); ancient books”. 

These excavated tomb texts help to confirm Marcel Granet’s proposal that Daoist Yubu went back to ancient shamanistic traditions. 

Granet pointed to accounts of Yu’s lameness in Warring States philosophical texts as indirect evidence of an original shamanic trance-inducing limp like the one described in the Baopuzi. Occurrences of the Pace of Yu in both the Shuihudi and Fangmatan almanacs concern travel, but the Pace of Yu is employed seven times in the Mawangdui Wushier bingfong as part of the magical strategy for exorcising demons blamed for ailments. Granet is surely correct about its shamanic origins. However, the excavated manuscripts show that in the third century B.C., the Pace of Yu had already become part of the fund of magico-religious knowledge regularly employed by the elite. It was in this more popular milieu that the Pace of Yu found its way into religious Taoism.[28] 


The Rishu 日書 “Day Book” almanac or hemerology is one of the Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts recovered in 1975 in Shuihudi, Hubei, from a tomb dated 217 BCE. Donald Harper [29] believes that for describing texts like the Rishu 日書, which determine lucky and unlucky days on sexagenary cycle numerology without reference to astrology, “hemerology” is a more accurate translation than “almanac” (typically meaning an annual publication for a single calendar year). 

The Rishu has one occurrence of Yubu san 禹步三, “‘Steps of Yu, three times”, and one of Yubu sanmian 禹步三勉, “Steps of Yu, three exertions”. This is consistent with the Baopuzi descriptions of Yubu in terms of sanbu “three steps” and jiuji 九跡, “nine footprints/traces,” where each “step” was composed of three separate steps. Andersen notes that the term Sanbu jiuji was later used synonymously with Yubu.[30] 

Yu is associated with travel in the Rishu.[13] The section titled “Yu xuyu” 禹須臾 “Promptuary/Instant of Yu” begins by listing the stem and branch sexagenary cycle in five groups of twelve signs each, and gives, for the days in each group, a certain lucky time of day to safely begin a journey. This section concludes with a ritual to be performed before going out of the city gate. 

When traveling, on reaching the threshold-bar of the capital gate, perform the Pace of Yu thrice. Advance one pace. Call out, “Kǝgw gao 皋 “name of the spirit being addressed”], I dare make a declaration. Let so-and-so [to be filled in with the name of the traveler] travel and not suffer odium; he first acts as Yu to clear the road.” Immediately draw five lines on the ground. Pick up the soil from the center of the lines and put it in your bosom.[31] 

Isabelle Robinet says this text lets us reconstruct the connection between “exorcistic practices intended to ward off harmful demons, and therapeutic practices intended to ensure good hygiene and good physical balance”, in other words, “the evolution of exorcism toward medicine, a shift from conceiving sickness as caused by demons to seeing sickness as the result of an imbalance”.[32] 

Wushi’er Bingfang

The Wushi’er Bingfang 五十二病方 “Remedies for 52 Ailments” is an early medical text written on silk scrolls unearthed in 1974 from No Tomb 3 (dated 168 BCE) in Mawangdui Han tombs siteHunan. It has seven occurrences of the descriptive phrase Yubu san 禹步三, “‘Steps of Yu, three times”, which is also seen above in the Rishu. 

Andersen describes the cures contained in the Wushi’er bingfang to “comprise various elements, such as the preparation of medicines, the waving of twigs, the spewing of purifying water, and the pronouncing of incantations.[30] The last two elements are often combined with Yubu and in many cases constitute the concluding part of the cure.” 

Chu Silk Manuscript

The Chu Silk Manuscript, which is an ancient Chinese astrological and astronomical text from the southern state of Chu, was discovered by grave robbers in a (ca. 300 BCE) Warring States period tomb east of ChangshaHunan Province. Although this text does not mention Yubu, the “Seasons” section records a deluge myth about the siblings Fu Xi and Nüwa being the only survivors of the Great Flood and their children bu “stepping” to calculate time and seasons. 

Long, long ago, Bao Xi of […] came from […] and lived in […]. His […] was […] and […] woman. It was confusing and dark, without […], […] water […] wind and rain were thus obstructed. He then married Zuwei […]’s granddaughter, named Nü Tian. She gave birth to four [… (children)] who then helped put things in motion making the transformations arrive according (to Heaven’s plan). Relinquishing (this) duty, they then rested and acted (in turn) controlling the sidewalls (of the calendrical plan); they helped calculate time by steps. They separated (heaven) above and (earth) below. Since the mountains were out of order, they then named the mountains, rivers, and Four Seas. They arranged (themselves) by […] hot and cold qi. To cross mountains, rivers and streams (of various types) when there was as yet no sun or moon (for a guide), when the people traveled across mountains and rivers, the four gods stepped in succession to indicate the year; these are the four seasons.[33] 

Present day 

In contemporary Taoist liturgical rituals, Yubu is commonly seen in bugang performances where the priest paces as a symbolic microcosm of Yu bringing order to the earth.[34] 

Edward Schafer [35] explained the “step of Yü” as representing a walk among symbolic stars that injects supernatural energy into the practitioner. By pacing the nine stars of the Dipper, the Daoist priest can summon the polar deity Taiyi 太一 “Grand Monad (from which all things sprang)” to receive its power for blessing the community. 

The Daoist Lingbao School performed early and theatrical versions of the Yubu. 

It takes place on several levels that are only one: a microcosm consisting of the sacred area; the macrocosm represented by the trigrams; and the sky, especially the stars of the Dipper. What the participants in the ceremony see is the movements of the priest. He moves to and fro, advancing, twisting, and turning as he dances the Step of Yu; he brandishes the sword that fends off demons; and he moves his fingers to follow the pattern of his feet and imitate their pacing on the Dipper. He is surrounded by acolytes who burn incense, chant the text, and play musical instruments.[36] 

Many present-day manuals of Chinese divination contain a whole section describing variants of Yubu and bugang.[23] While the modern emphasis is on divination for the purpose of achieving individual immortality and ascending to heaven, this tradition originated in early Shangqing School texts where the divination was to obtain safety through methods of invisibility. 

See also


  • Andersen, Poul (1989). “The Practice of Bugang”. Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie. 5 (5): 15–53. doi:10.3406/asie.1989.942. 
  • Andersen, Poul (2008). “Bugang”. In Fabrizio Pregadio (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Taoism. Routledge. pp. 237–240. 
  • Harper, Donald (1999). “Warring States Natural Philosophy and Occult Thought”. In Michael Loewe; Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.). The Cambridge History of Ancient China. Cambridge University Press. pp. 813–884. 
  • Constance A. Cook; John S. Major, eds. (1999). “Appendix – Translation of the Chu Silk Manuscript”. Defining Chu: Image and Reality in Ancient China. Translated by Li, Ling; Cook, Constance A. Hawaii University Press. pp. 171–176. ISBN 9780824829056. 
  • Pas, Julian F. (1998). “Step(s) of Yü”. Historical Dictionary of Taoism. Scarecrow Press. 
  • Robinet, Isabelle (1997). Taoism: Growth of a Religion. Translated by Phyllis Brooks. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804728393. 
  • Schafer, Edward (1977). Pacing the Void. T’ang Approaches to the Stars. University of California Press. 
  • Schuessler, Axel (2007). ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824829759. 
  • Sidwell, Paul (2015). The Palaungic Languages: Classification, Reconstruction and Comparative Lexicon. München: Lincom Europa. 
  • Alchemy, Medicine, and Religion in the China of A.D. 320: The Nei Pien of Ko Hung. Translated by Ware, James R. Dover. 1966. ISBN 0-486-24088-6. 


  1. ^ Schuessler 2007, p. 588. 
  1. ^ Sidwell 2015, p. 103. 
  1. ^ Schuessler 2007, p. 173. 
  1. ^ Xunzi, A Translation and Study of the Complete Works, Volume 1, Books 1–6. Translated by Knoblock, John. Stanford University Press. 1988. 
  1. ^ The Classic of Mountains and Seas. Translated by Birrell, Anne. Penguin. 2000. p. 81. ISBN 9780140447194. 
  1. ^ Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu. Translated by Mair, Victor H. Bantam Books. 1994. p. 337. 
  1. ^ Pas 1998, p. 294. 
  1. ^ The I Ching, or, Book of Changes. Bollingen Series XIX. Translated by Wilhelm, Richard; Baynes, Cary F. (3rd ed.). Princeton University Press. 1967. 
  1. ^ Tr. Visser, M W de (1913). The Dragon in China and Japan. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller. Reprinted by Cosimo (2008) p. 57, ISBN 9781605204093. 
  1. ^ Saso, Michael (1972), Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal, Washington State University Press. p. 59. 
  1. ^ Andersen 1989, p. 21. 
  1. ^ Yang, Lihui, et al. (2005). Handbook of Chinese Mythology. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-19-533263-6. 
  1. Jump up to:a b Harper 1999, p. 872. 
  1. ^ Tr. Fischer, Paul (2012), Shizi: China’s First Syncretist, Columbia University Press. P. 115. 
  1. ^ Tr. Bullock, Jeffrey S. (2011), Yang Xiong: Philosophy of the Fa yan: A Confucian Hermit in the Han Imperial Court, Mountain Mind Press. pp. 140-1. 
  1. ^ Andersen 1989, p. 16. 
  1. ^ Granet, Marcel (1925), “Remarques sur le Taoïsme Ancien“, Asia Major 2:146-151. pp. 147-51. 
  1. ^ Andersen 2008, p. 237. 
  1. ^ Andersen 2008, pp. 238–9. 
  1. ^ Andersen 1989, p. 24. 
  1. ^ Ware 1966, pp. 179–80. 
  1. ^ Ware 1966, p. 198. 
  1. Jump up to:a b Andersen 2008, p. 239. 
  1. ^ Ware 1966, pp. 285–6. 
  1. ^ Tr. Andersen 1989, pp. 21–2. 
  1. ^ Andersen 1989, p. 22. 
  1. ^ Tr. Pregadio, Fabrizio (2001), The Seal of the Unity of the Three, Golden Elixir Press. p. 7. 
  1. ^ Harper 1999, p. 873. 
  1. ^ Harper 1999, p. 843. 
  1. Jump up to:a b Andersen 1989, p. 17. 
  1. ^ Tr. Harper 1999, p. 873. 
  1. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 39. 
  1. ^ Li & Cook 1999p. 174. 
  1. ^ Sailey, Jay. 1978. The Master Who Embraces Simplicity: A study of the philosopher Ko Hung, A.D. 283-343. Chinese Materials Center. p. 342. ISBN 0-89644-522-4 
  1. ^ Schafer 1977, pp. 283–9, quoted by Pas 1998, p. 294. 
  1. ^ Robinet 1997, p. 174. 

Further reading[edit] 

  • Knoblock, John and Jeffrey Riegel, trs. (2000), The Annals of Lü Buwei: A Complete Translation.