22) Unity of Springfield / World Religions Class – What is the Tao?

I would like to begin with something I wrote back in April 1994. More than three years before I had an inkling of ever going to China. I wrote this after four or five months of intense study and writing my first book that was my own interpretation of the I Ching -The Book of Change and was introduced to my guides (my mentors) and Taoism. A book that was published in China ten years later in 2004 that appears here on my website thekongdanfoundation.com. 

The River of No Return

What is the Tao, but a blade of grass or a daffodil blooming after a Spring rain?

DSCI0113Simply the essence of nature’s way and our own connectedness to it and to all things. What is the Tao, but the pebbles in a stream bed and the water flowing overhead as the trout breathes through its gills finding oxygen only in the water itself?

What is the Tao, but that that seems irrational to all those unknowing of the ultimate way of virtue? Of the inner desire to find peace and to know a certain contentment known only in the journey itself and knowing where the road leads to and where it does not.

What is the Tao, but the beginnings and endings of all things that were comprised of yesterday, occurs today and will happen tomorrow? Everything and nothing together as one in an instant and forever.

What is the Tao, but dragons bringing both good and bad as there must be in all things? Strive to do the right thing by all knowing that the clouds and elements both DSCI0139lead and get in the way of what may fleetingly be considered progress.

Mirror Images    Qingyang Taoist Temple   Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China

What is the Tao, but the abandonment of all things seen as necessary to succeed in the world as we live it with others present?  What is the Tao, but the ultimate quest for perfection and immortality and finding mirror images of the sage in ourselves and our everyday actions now and forever yet to come?

What is the Tao, but to flow as a droplet of water down the river of no return? Knowing all the while that in the end you will simply arrive and that in itself will be forever simply enough.    4/10/94

The Longman (Dragon Gate) sect of the Complete Reality School of Taoism

The Dragon Gate sect incorporates elements of Buddhism and Confucianism into a AZhongnan Mountaincomprehensive form of Taoism. Complete Reality Taoism is generally divided into two main traditions, Southern and Northern. The Dragon Gate sect is an offshoot of the Northern school. Its spiritual descent is traced to the thirteenth-century master Qiu Chang-chun, who was one of the original seven disciples of Wang Chongyang. Chang-chun means “Eternal Spring”Genghis Khan appointed Chang-chun overseer of all religions in China, and the Dragon Gate sect thus played a critical role in the conservation of the Han Chinese culture. The entry here tries the show how it comes together in unison with common themes in Chinese history.

The Quanzhen School is a branch of Taoism that originated in Northern China under the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). One of its founders was the Taoist Wang Chongyang, who lived in the early Jin. When the Mongols invaded the Song dynasty (960–1279) in 1254, the Quanzhen Taoists exerted great effort in keeping the peace, thus saving thousands of lives, particularly among those of Han Chinese descent.

Foundation Principles

The meaning of Quanzhen can be translated literally to “All True” and for AThe Way of Complete Perfectionthis reason, it is often called the All Truth Religion” or the “Way of Completeness and Truth”. In some texts, it is also referred to as “The Way of Complete Perfection”. “The Way of Complete Perfection” is a text/reference book I have had for some time and refer to it frequently.

An excerpt from Discourse 7 is called “Sitting in Meditation” and reads as follows:

Sitting in meditation does not simply mean to sit with the body erect and the eyes closed. This is superficial sitting. To sit authentically, you must maintain a clear ATiashan IChngheart-mind like Mount Tai, remaining unmovable and unshakable throughout the entire day. Maintain this practice rather standing, sitting, or lying down, whether in movement or stillness. Restrain and seal the four Gates – namely the eyes, ears, mouth, and nose. Do not allow the external world to enter in. If there is even the slightest trace of a thought about movement and stillness, this cannot be called quiet sitting. If you can practice like this, although your body exists in the world of dust, your name will be listed in the ranks of the immortals.

Then there is no need to travel great distances and consult others. Rather worthiness and sage-hood resides in this very body. After one hundred years, with accomplishment complete, you will cast off the husk and ascend to perfection. With a single pellet of elixir (inner wisdom) completed, spirit wanders through the eight realms. (page 111 from Daily Practice)

This branch of Taoism was founded at Kunyu Mountain in Shandong province that Akunyinlies near the cities of Yantai and Weihai and is the birthplace of Quanzhen Taoism. I have been to both cities and had several students from this area while teaching at Jining University and Qufu Normal School in Qufu. For centuries, the mountain has been popular not only with emperors and monks, it has attracted innumerable members of the literati – writers, poets, calligraphers, and painters – who built 100_5699retreats on the mountain where they could pursue their respective artistic inspirations. Inscriptions and stelae are spread about the mountain, bearing witness to the presence of these scholars and artists.

With strong Taoist roots, the Quanzhen School specializes in the process of “alchemy within the body” or Neidan (internal alchemy), as opposed to Waidan (external alchemy which experiments with the ingestion of herbs and minerals, etc.). The Waidan tradition has been largely replaced by Neidan, as Waidan was a sometimes dangerous and lethal pursuit. Quanzhen focuses on internal cultivation of the person which is consistent with the pervading Taoist desire for attaining wu wei, which is essentially unconscious action. Like most Taoists, Quanzhen priests were particularly concerned with longevity and immortality through alchemy, harmonizing oneself with the Tao, studying the Five Elements, and ideas on balance consistent with yin and yang (I Ching) theory. The school is also known for using Buddhist and Confucian ideas.

The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of Aplanetssignificant gravity (Mars: , Mercury: , Jupiter: , Venus: , and Saturn: ) is the short form of “Wǔ zhǒng liúxíng zhī qì” (五種流行之氣) or “the five types of chi dominating at different times”. It is a five-fold conceptual scheme that many traditional Chinese fields used to explain a wide array of phenomena, from cosmic cycles to the interaction between internal Afive elementsorgans, and from the succession of political regimes to the properties of medicinal drugs. The “Five Phases” are wood ( mù), fire ( huǒ), earth (tǔ), metal ( jīn), and water ( shuǐ). This order of presentation is known as the “mutual generation” sequence. In the order of “mutual overcoming” they are Wood, Earth, Water, Fire, and Metal.

The system of five phases was used for describing interactions and relationships between phenomena. After it came to maturity in the first or second century BC during the Han dynasty, this device was employed in many fields of early Chinese thought, including seemingly disparate fields such as geomancy or feng shui, astrology, traditional Chinese medicine, music, military strategy, and martial 100_5684arts. The system is still used as a reference in some forms of complementary and alternative medicine and martial arts with the I Ching providing an over-reaching… or over-arching (as I call it), connecting point that transcends everything bringing understanding to it all. This is all a lot to take in at once. Just remember the Chinese have had thousands of years to “connect the dots, or stars, or planets” so to speak.

Xing:  of ‘Wu Xing’ means moving; a planet is called a ‘moving star’: 行星 in Chinese. Wu Xing:  originally refers to the five major planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Mars, Venus) that create five dimensions of earth life. Wu Xing” is also widely translated as “Five Elements” and this is used extensively by many including practitioners of Five Element acupuncture. This translation arose by false analogy with the Western system of the four elements. Whereas, the classical Greek elements 100_4892were concerned with substances or natural qualities – the Chinese xing are “primarily concerned with process and change”… along with balance, hence the common translation as “phases” or “agents”. Another tradition refers to the Wǔ Xíng as Wǔ Dé 五德 , the Five Virtues (usually translated as “inherent character”, inner power, or integrity in Taoism). Also viewed important in Confucianism as: benevolence (rén ), righteousness (yì ), propriety (lǐ ), wisdom (zhì ), and fidelity (xìn ) as the Five Constant Virtues (wǔ cháng 五常) which are important as traditional virtues of China.

Cosmology and feng shui

According to Wu Xing theory, the structure of the cosmos mirrors the five phases. 100_3421Each phase has a complex series of associations with different aspects of nature, as can be seen in the following table. In the ancient Chinese form of geomancy, known as feng shui, practitioners all based their art and system on the five phases (Wu Xing).

All of these phases are represented within the trigrams of the I Ching and yin/yang focusing on “complimentary opposites”. Associated with these phases are colors, seasons and shapes; all of which are interacting with each other.

Understanding that along with innate knowing comes the grace of impermanence – everything changes – and that there is no separation. We are simply one with the ten thousand things… with everything found in nature. Based on a particular directional energy flow from one phase to the next, the interaction can be expansive, destructive, or exhaustive. A proper knowledge of each aspect of energy flow will enable the feng shui practitioner to apply certain cures or rearrangement of energy in a way beneficial to the receiver.

Beginning history of Taoism

According to traditional legend, Wang Chongyang met two Taoist immortals in the DSCI0258summer of 1159 CE. The immortals, Zhongli Quan and Lu Dongbin taught him Taoist beliefs and trained him in secret rituals. The meeting proved deeply influential, and roughly a year later, in 1160, Wang met one of these men again. In this second encounter, he was provided with a set of five written instructions which led to his decision of living by himself in a grave (a cave) he created for himself in Zhongnan Mountain for three years. (The Zhongnan mountains have been a popular dwelling-place for Daoist hermits since the Qin dynasty. Buddhist monks began living in the mountains after Buddhism’s introduction into China from India in the early first millennium AD. Due to the mountains’ close proximity to the ancient capital of Xi’an, officials who incurred the imperial court’s wrath often fled to these mountains to escape punishment. It was from here that early Taoism left and went to Shandong).

After seven years of living in the mountain (three inside the cave and another four in a hut he later called “Complete Perfection Hut”), Wang met two of his seven future A7Mastersdisciples, Tan Chuduan and Qiu Chuji. In 1167, Wang traveled to Shandong Province and met Ma Yu and Ma’s wife Sun Bu’er who became his students. These and others would become part of the seven Quanzhen disciples, who were later known as the Seven Masters of Quanzhen. After Wang’s departure, it was left to his disciples to continue expounding the Quanzhen beliefs. Ma Yu succeeded Wang as head of the school, while Sun Bu’er went on to establish the Purity and Tranquility School, one of the foremost branches of Quanzhen.

Another excerpt from “The Way of Complete Perfection” I like to refer to is…

The innate nature of heaven is humanity. The human heart-mind is the pivot. Establishing the Way of Heaven enables the stabilization of humanity.

The celestial nature of every human being has the capacity to be good or DSCI0049perverse, great or petty. It longs for cultural refinement over military activity, for the Dao (Tao) over ordinariness, for dignity over debasement, for loftiness over lowliness. From ancient times to the present, the innate nature of human beings has sought to cast forth the immortal embryo and exchange the husk, to change the bones and transform form. Like ants going out on their circuit, it has not ceased for a moment.

The pivot of every human heart-mind daily and constantly goes through myriad transformations. There are moments of ingenuity and awkwardness, alignment and perversion, as well as profundity and shallowness. There are moments of kindness and cruelty, loyalty and contrariness, broad-mindedness and narrow-mindedness, greatness and smallness, clarity and turbidity, worthiness and rudeness, love and hate, as well as correctness and falsity. If you examine this pivot of the heart-mind, you will know the innate nature of humans.

With respect to “establishing the Way of Heaven”, those who are ignorant about this way do not know that the grace of heaven is extensive. Spring is warm, and summer is hot; autumn is cool, and winter is cold. In each of these four seasons, there is a transformative influence. It produces and completes the myriad beings. Its assistance extends to the human world. (Scripture study / page 191).

Finally, from the book published in 2004 from the Preface of “An American Journey through the I Ching and Beyond'”…     

                                           The Paradox

Some people go through their entire lives not knowing who they are, where they have been, or where they are going.

You are fortunate. You have a chance to see to know to understand where you are from, why you are here, and where you are going. To know who you are, who you have been, and you will be along the way. However, you must know that to know is DSCI0111not to know, and to have is not to have.

To see is not to be, and who you will be is not to see.

For whatever is useful by the world’s standards cannot be useful in finding the Tao. It is the eternal nature of the Tao and Te (the way of virtue) that is to be found. Reality becomes, is and will be the chance endeavor to find the Tao.     1/15/1994

By 1dandecarlo

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